At the beginning of the thirteenth century, Mongolian chief Tamoojeen merged nine Mongolian tribes, and a shaman who was said to be sometimes taken to the sky by his white horse, announced that by the sky-god's decision, Tamoojeen should become the Genghis-khan ("Chief khan"), and have khans as decendants. Soon, Genghis khan ruled over many Turkish and Tartar tribes also, and those were so famously fierce, that the Mongolian attacks were remembered as Tartar conquests. Warfare tactics taken from the Chinese, made western castles and fortified cities no match for them. In the 1220's they entered Europe, where they occupied the main trading posts. After the death of Genghis khan, a dynasty - and state-founder, his third-born son, Oghodei was elected to be chief khan. The rest of the sons - according to their father's will - got their separate piece of land to rule over. "The western quarter of the world" was gained by Batoo khan, who lead a great conquest against Europe. Brother Julianus, a Hungarian monk wrote: "The Tartars in battle are excellent with the bow, but not so good with their swords and spears. Their army is made up of assorted and mixed nations with different languages. They kill the kings and foremen of the occupied countries, and force the soldiers and serfs to fight for them. They don't siege castle themselves, but kill and plunder the people living around, and use them to siege their own castle." So in those years, Hungary was facing a power that bit a fair piece out of China, destroyed the countries of inner Asia and expanded from the Pacific Ocean to Eastern Europe. They often sent their delegates and letters to the Hungarian king, Béla IV. In his letters Batoo khan wrote: "It would be better and advisable for you to yield to me", and "I order you not to keep the Kuns around you, and not to get into a conflict with me over them." Béla IV. never answered those messages, and eventually became a thorn in the Mongols' side. They began to look at him as their arch enemy, and did everything to be able to kill as many of his people as possible. They didn't spare the old, young, women, even children. "They did not droop in continuous killing." The only thing that saved Hungary from a second, devastating attack, was the changes inside the Tartar empire - brought by the development of the states of the Golden Horde -, and also the resistant behavior of Russian nations.


We can say, that the Carpathian basin holds the heritage of archer nations mentioned above. Wherever we step, the ground is filled with history. Amongst these places, there's one in Hungary, exceptional, almost magical, as though it was haunted. That's where all the different nations who lived here buried their greatest leaders.